How can a society function without money?

All interactions that include receiving goods and services require a means of compensation. That compensation is usually in the form of money. As a legal tender, it refers to the methods of payment sanctioned by governments across the globe.

To set a value to commodities or services, people use money. The generally accepted value of money is determined by many factors, such as supply and demand, or foreign exchange rates. There are various kinds of money and currencies. Currency refers to a unit of money used in a specific country. Although there can be multiple currencies in circulation in a country, there is usually one main currency accepted by all institutions and businesses.

Money can take numerous forms. We have paper money, coins, electronic money and even cryptocurrencies. We have come to a point where we can’t imagine our lives without money, using it to jugde the value of all things from bread & milk to a Foxy Bingo bonus code… or can we..?

Back to the basics of the bartering system

Ever since the dawn of civilisations, people have conducted all trade in the form of a bartering system. No matter what kind of services or goods you require, you have to give something in return, usually something of value to the other party. Many would claim that this is a fair and a just way of conducting business as all parties end up with much-needed resources and goods.

However, the whole process is indeed cumbersome and takes a lot of time to complete. This was the reason why people looked for alternative ways of designating a value for commodities and services, and that is how money in the form of coins was brought to life.

Cryptocurrencies at work

Creating blockchain technology is another bold attempt to reshape the system of payments and trade. Blockchain technology gave rise to cryptocurrencies which represent digital currencies that can be implemented into everyday transactions. Cryptocurrencies can prove to be a viable alternative to money since a lot of transactions today happen online, and with the advent of technology, we can almost entirely reduce the need for paper money and thus use cryptocurrencies and digital money for all our transactions. In China, e-wallets— banking applications that allow you to pay for goods just by scanning your phone, are widely used and appreciated.

Abandon it altogether

There are radical examples of people trying to live without money entirely. The most notable example is that of Heidemarie Schwermer from Germany, who made a choice 14 years ago to live without money. Her story is captured in a documentary where she describes how she trades her services, such as cleaning one’s apartment or cooking in exchange for food and housing. Her inspiring story does sound a bit suspicious, but, she has proved it feasible.

The nations with compulsory military service

Compulsory military service, or sometimes referred to as conscription or draft, is an obligation for members of a country to spend some time in military training and prepare themselves for possible military actions. This form of enlisting people for the army has been around for a long time and has proved to be highly valuable in times of need. Today, some nations implement these laws and require men over the age of 18 to spend time in military training and enlist in the army. In some countries, like Israel, women are not exempt from military service and can assume all combat positions.

The reasons for maintaining conscription are many. First of all, all nations consider safety as one of the critical elements in society and will hope to ensure all citizens are safe at all times. These nations have regular drafts and have official numbers of people serving in the army. Another reason for conscription is that these nations feel that having a military education is good and serves a great purpose of ensuring discipline and an active lifestyle.

North Korea

North Korea is one of the countries in the world that has compulsory military service for both men and women. The duration of service for men is ten years, which make it the longest one in the world. The number of military personnel exceeds 6 million, with almost a million of them in active service and the rest belonging to the reserve forces. The turmoils after the Korean War continue to unnerve people and the threat from new conflicts is quite unsettling.

Norway

One of the countries that are considered to belong to a group of more peace-loving nations is Norway. However, it has seen its share of conflicts in the past and still has conscription for men over the age of 19. The curiosity about its military is that women are now expected to enroll as a new set of laws was introduced, saying that women should also participate in military service as a part of gender equality measures.

Morocco

The Kingdom of Morocco is considering reinstatement of compulsory military service that will target young men, aged anywhere between 19 and 25. The reason for it is that all young men of that age, who are not attending schools or are otherwise unemployed, should go through military training to strengthen their bodies, learn discipline and social interactions, thus making themselves a significant part of the country’s life.

The benefits of taking paternity leave

Apart from being a tremendous joy in life, having a baby is a great responsibility. Throughout history, it has become evident that the most considerable part in child rearing almost exclusively pertains to mothers. In the world today, when it is expected of a woman to be both successful as a mother and as a businesswoman, this load can sometimes prove too much, and all the help they can get from early on is invaluable.

Here is where fathers play a significant role. Recent studies have shown that children develop faster when both parents are actively involved in their child’s development, and the bond that the child establishes with its parent is thus stronger and everlasting.

To achieve that, men should make themselves more available and need to rearrange their working hours and commitments. We shall now discuss the benefits of such an approach.

Men can be the help women need around babies

Many women would argue that men don’t know their way around babies. They are clumsy and don’t have the delicate touch. Changing diapers can also be quite a challenge, but that doesn’t have to be the case. If men took paternity leaves, they would have more time to practice and cope with these natural occurrences during baby’s first days.

Also, they can dedicate their time to attend schools of paternity and learn new and interesting strategies that would boost child’s development significantly. Being an integral part of a child’s upbringing gives out the message to all mothers out there that they are not alone and that men are willing to share in all duties and responsibilities.

Many countries have recognised this, and apart from maternity leaves, now offer fathers with a chance of taking up to two weeks of paid leave after the baby arrives. Such has been the practice in the UK for several years. No countries have done more for paternity than the Scandinavian nations, such as Sweden, Norway, and Denmark.

For example, in Sweden, fathers can take up to 496 days of paid leave during the first years of a child’s life. The Swedes consider it necessary and productive, and they are willing to pay up to 80% of their wages which they are entitled to in their social plans.

No need for external help

By taking paternity leave, men can dedicate more time to their children and decrease the want of external help in the form of asking the grandparents to babysit. Although their help and advice are valuable, nothing is more rewarding than to say you have managed to do it all by yourself, no matter the obstacles you have come across on your way.

 

Which countries use the internet the most and which live without it?

It is almost inconceivable that there are places on Earth still without internet access; however, such places do exist. We live in a digital world and the era of computers, smartphones and tablets which operate on systems dependant on the internet.

The internet, as a global network, was designed with the purpose of sharing information across the planet. Since its inception, it has outgrown its initial goal and is now an integral part of even our most mundane daily activities, such as shopping or talking to a friend via chat applications.

With all this in mind, it is no wonder people tend to rely on the internet a lot, from buying their groceries to reading about the Unibet casino online. However, there are still places on Earth where people live without it.

China

China is one of the countries with the highest number of internet users. The internet runs deep in its modern culture, and a lot of daily transactions are done online. Tech giants, like Tencent, have found a way to incorporate the internet into the everyday lives of the Chinese, most notably with their chat application that allows you to deposit money to your account and pay for things by Near-Field communication.

The UK

More than 90 percent of people aged anywhere between 16 and 35 are internet users in Britain, ONS has declared. These individuals spend a lot of hours behind their computers and smartphones on a daily basis. If you walk the streets, you will see a lot of people with their heads glued to the screens of their phones. A lot of pedestrians walk while chatting on their phones and that poses a real threat to both people and traffic.

It is only a matter of time when the British authorities will follow in the footsteps of a town in the Netherlands which built LED traffic signalling into the pavement, designed to allow the people to watch the signs without lifting their heads from the screens of their smartphones and tablets.

North Korea

North Korea has tight control over internet access. North Koreans aren’t allowed to use the internet and are forced to use an internal network. Even tourists aren’t allowed the connection and buying local phones, and SIM cards won’t do either. The government has a close eye to all digital networking systems.

Cuba

Even though Cuba is a great tourist destination, internet access is hard to come by. Although it is not strictly prohibited, the internet service lacks the infrastructure to support a lasting connection. Also, Wi-Fi hotspots are charged additionally to tourists, and you need a special permit to access them which surely begs the question if it is worth the trouble.

Final Thoughts

The areas where we can apply the internet have expanded exponentially, and with that expansion came a proper infatuation with the internet and what it can do. We started implementing it even in devices such as refrigerators, but we shall be wary though, as too much use of technology can be and already is detrimental to humankind. It’s all about balancing the two.

6 Types and Characteristics of Societies Through History

Since time immemorial, people have understood the fact that they need to join forces and form communities to survive the harsh environment and weather conditions. The sense of camaraderie and unity is what kept them alive what has lead to the society we live in now.

Societies have evolved manifold, and people in them assume different roles, depending on the actual needs of the community. Sociologists and anthropologists have studied their development carefully and can discern them into different types, mostly according to their level of technology and characteristics.

Here are 6 types of societies that we have lived in throughout the history.

Hunters and gatherers

One of the first societies formed was that of hunters and gatherers. Since food is the primal source of life for humans, the main focus of hunters and gatherers was to hunt down animals for food, gather fruits and nuts, and search for water sources.

The roles in this society were divided between men and women, where men hunted bigger animals and were in charge of providing food and shelter, while women collected fruit and hunted smaller prey. Their nomadic tribal structure allowed them to form close unions and, as there were not many of them, they could quickly move from one place to another, wherever there were food and water.

Pastoral society

Pastoral societies were the first ones to domesticate animals and to form permanent settlements. They emerged in areas which were not very suitable for growing plants and where they needed to have food within reach. With storing food, these societies could thrive and even form the first traces of trade with other pastoral tribes.

Agricultural society

Agricultural societies emerged from what is referred to as the ‘Agricultural Revolution’. Growing crops and having greater technological means allowed them to grow in numbers and form more prominent families. This gave rise to the first form of nobility and division among labour. There were warriors, educators, farmers, artisans and others. All of it began to appear like a functioning system.

Feudal society

The systems above were first officially established with feudalism. A system that began as early as the 9th century implied that a wealthier member of the nobility lay claim to lands which were farmed and worked on by common people in exchange for food and housing. The families of commoners worked for feudal lords for generations and thus helped them amass great wealth.

Industrial society

With the further advent of technology, people were able to put the machines to work and establish factories. This revolution began in 18th century Britain and quickly spread to the rest of the world. What this meant to people was that many of them could get employment and support their families. With the rise of the industry, transportation and housing also grew, education was institutionalised and made available.

Post-Industrial society

We are now in what can be referred to as a post-industrial society. Factories are still present, but with a lot more technology and with the appearance of the digital age. We now have computers in our pockets, social networks on the internet and even intelligent machines.

Final Thoughts

The history is long, so is our progress. No matter how far we have reached, we are still carrying the seeds of our predecessors to create a better society in the future.